tv PBS News Hour PBS July 18, 2011 7:00pm-8:00pm EDT
captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> ifill: the phone hacking crisis deepened in britain today with a second high-level resignation at scotland yard and the death of a whistleblower. good evening, i'm gwen ifill. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. on the "newshour" tonight, weç get the latest on the scandal including claims of illegal eavesdropping and bribery by journalists working for rupert murdoch's news corp from ned temko of the "london observer." >> ifill: then, we examine president obama's pick to lead a new consumer protection agency. >> woodruff: from indonesia, ray suarez reports on a nation coming to grips with mental health disorders even as its
institutions lock up and chain patients. >> this enormous country has almost no psychiatrists,çç leaving the mentally ill with very few options for treatment. >> ifill: kwame holman brings us the latest on the showdown over raising the government's borrowing limit. >> woodruff: and jeffrey brown talks to legendary concert pianist leon fleisher about overcoming a disability that nearly silenced his career. >> if there was a way that i could remain active in music without playing with two hands, well, i had to find it. >> ifill: that's all ahead on tonight's "newshour."çç major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> oil companies have changed my country. >> oil companies can make a difference. >> we have the chance to build the economy. >> create jobs, keep people healthy and improve schools. >> ... and our communities. >> in angola chevron helps train engineers, teachers and farmers;
launch child's programs. >> it's not just good business. >> i'm hopeful about my country's future. >> it's my country's future. çç >> and by the bill and melinda gates foundation. dedicated to the idea that all people deserve the chance to live a healthy productive life. and with the ongoing support of these institutions and foundations. and... this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.zç >> ifill: new developments swirled in london today as a phone hacking scandal spread from the murdoch media empire to the british government. scotland yard had two high-level
resignations in 24 hours and officials reported the death of one of the scandal's earliest whistle-blowers. we begin with this report from gary gibbon of "independent television news." >> reporter: no sooner had the head of the metropolitan police sir paul stephenson resigned than one of his most senior officers did the same thingç assistant commissioner johnç yates was head of counter- terrrism. >> the threats we face in the modern world are such that i would never forgive myself if i'm unable to give total commitment to the task of protecting london and the country during this period. i simply cannot let this situation continue. >> reporter: the police authority committee that decides whether police conduct should be investigated met this morning. they were highly critical of john yates' decisions two yearsç ago when allegations of hacking at the "news of the world" resurfaced. at the time, john yates decided there was nothing new to investigate, something he himself recently admitted in an
interview had been a pretty crap decision. the committee decided he should be fully investigated, that meant he'd be suspended and john yates decided to resign. >> i have acted with complete integrity and my conscience is clear. i look forward to the future judge-led inquiry where my role will be examined in a proper and calmerçç environme. yates >> reporter: john yates had also been under attack for the met's decision to hire the former "news of the world" deputy editor neil wallis as a communications adviser at the very time that people were pleading with the met to investigate allegations against the "news of the world." that decision was at the heart of the met chief sir paul stephen's decision to stand down yesterday. in his resignation statement, he implied that david cameron's choice of former "news of the world" editor andy coulson as his communications chief was aç much more serious mistake.ç david cameron heard about the second senior police resignation en route to south africa. aides said he would now be
rushing back to london much earlier than planned in time to make a statement to m.p.s. parliament's holiday is being put off for a day to make it happen. >> what matters most is that we ensure very swift and effective continuity at the metropolitan police service so that they do not miss a beat in terms of carrying out these what happened in the police service. >> reporter: this morning, a former news of the world reporter who alleged that andy coalson himself personally asked him to tap into phones was found dead at his home. tap into phone was found dead at he was-- he had a history of drink and drug problems. police said the death was unexplained but not thought to be suspicious. >> ifill: for a closer look into developments in the united kingdom, we turn to ned temko who writes for the "london observer."ç ned, let's start with the mystery.
do we know anything more about the circumstances of his death tonight? >> we don't. but the description from the police-- and that is that they do not see it as suspicious-- generally means that they don't expect to find foul play, but they said it will be sometime before they know. the reality is that in the fee bril political atmosphere that is swirling around this entire scandal, there will beç stripes by tomorrow morning no doubt. but i think the truth is that it's just a tragic either accident. he did have a history of drink and drug problems. but the real sig... significance is he was the guy who blew the whistle. the first on the record to accuse andy coalson whom david cameron hired as his head of information shortly before he became prime minister of direct involvement in thisçç
phone hacking. >> ifill: he was a reporter at the news of the world. he was actually the primary source for many of these early reports. >> well, he was one of many. significantly he talked to the "new york times" as well. and although on this side of the atlantic the guardian was making the running on this story for months and months, without great effect, the real breakthrough or the real thing that helped the political class sit up and take notice was whençç the "new york time" also got interested and when sean, as i said, went on the record because there were a lot of anonymous or unnamed sources. basically said that he had worked with andy coalson, that andy coalson had not only been aware but had encouraged him to do this. >> ifill: you know, ned, there are so many people involved and so many layers of this story now but distinctly turned in the direction of alleged corruption on the part of people in the british government especially in the police, scotland yard.
tell us about sir paul stevenson. utation. >> well, the reputation of paul stevenson was as a career cop, a straight arrow. but it's truly extraordinary that in the space of 24 hours not only sir paul but john yates-- that's the top two people at the metropolitan police in scotland yard-- have basically fallen on their swords. interestingly, both of them said that their integrity is intact. they've done nothing wrong. but basically what they are saying is that the political heat has become so extreme that theyçç saw no practical y of carrying on. >> ifill: and the questions that are being raised, to be clear about the police's role in all of this is that they were paid or that we were cozy or too chummy with the people who were doing the phone hacking allegedly. >> well, there's a number of allegations. one that individual policemen presumably at much lower level were taking money from news of
the world reporters and other news international reporters. that hasn't been proven but it certainly is alleged and widely believed.çç the crucial thing for sir paul stevenson and john yates is this cozyness at the top. the fact that they hired neal wallace who was a former deputy editor of news of the world which is the paper at the center of these allegations, the fact that john yates, for instance, had a number of meals with senior news international executives and all this at a time when we now know that the police was badly fumbling their pvestigation into dxese allegations of phone hacking. >> ifill: in fact the police had this information and had allowed this evidence but had just not looked into it? >> well, that's basically it. and john yates was grilled by a parliamentary committee last week. his explanation was essentially that, look, this was something he was led to believe was fairly limited.
he was in charge of anti-terror operations. there were a lot more important things on his desk. he didn't think it mattered. now obviously it matte$] a great deal now. that's one reason he's had to go. >> ifill: what is the tie-in to rebecca brooks who also had to give up her job at news corp and now is under her own suspicion? >> well, she was editor of news of the world which is the paper at the center of all this, as was andy coalson. and basically all of them have been saying they knew nothing about it. they would not have sanctioned it. and there's a great deal of skepticism. basically what'sappening isç everybody involved in this-- and this includes members of the media, politicians, members of parliament, the police-- are all trying to shift the blame on to someone else. indeed when sir paul and john yates resigned they got a parting shot at david cameron
for hiring andy coalson. the same thing is happening with rebecca brooks. she's saying she's done nothing wrong. she's quite angry at having been arrested yesterday. and all this willçç gain in intensity at least for the next 48 hours until parliament goes into recess. >> ifill: prime minister cameron cut short his visit to africa and is coming back to prepare for tomorrow, this inquiry being conducted by parliament. what do we expect there? >> well, tomorrow will be extraordinary. there's two separate committees in the house of commons who will be interviewing sir paul stevenson. john yates. and then james murdoch, rupert murdoch's son, rupert murdoch himself, rebecca brooks,0oeñ will be made for tv drama and will go on for hours and will all be televised live on the news channels here. that's day one. and then on wednesday although parliament was supposed to already have been in recess,
as you say, david cameron has flown back early from a trip to africa for a special session at which he'll make a statement and answer questions. >> ifill: ned temko, we'll be watching every bit of it. thank you so much. >> woodruff: still to come on the "newshour": president o(hdad a consumer watchdog agency; cruel conditions for mental health patients in indonesia; the countdown for raising the debt ceiling and the remarkable comeback of pianist leon fleisher. but first, the other news of the day. here's hari sreenivasan. >> sreenivasan: worries about the debt troubles in the u.s. and europe weighed down wall street today. the dow jones industrial average lost 94 points to close at 12,385. the nasdaq fell 24 points to close at 2,765. violence flared across afghanistan today. four nato troops were killed in bombings in the east and south. and, eleven afghan policemenç died in separate attacks. amid the killings, general david petraeus-- commander of u.s. and
nato troops in afghanistan-- handed over his duties. he is leaving to lead the central intelligence agency. his replacement is u.s. marine corps general john allen. >> it is my intention to maintain the momentum of this campaign, this great campaign on which we have embarked. i will continue to support in every way possible, the recruiting, the training, preparation and equipping and the fielding and the employment of the afghaf oational security forces.ç >> sreenivasan: allen's tenure began just a day after taliban insurgents claimed another high- profile assassination. a close aide to afghan president hamid karzai was killed sunday in a gunbattle at his home in kabul. it followed the murder of karzai's half-brother last week. for more on afghanistan we turn to pam constable, who covers south asia for the "washington post." pam, thanks for being with us. the series of high profile assassinations have picca off
important targets as well. one of the former governors of a province. why is it significant? >> well, particularly in light of the fact that it came so quickly after the assassination of the half brother of president karzai who was killed in kandahar just days before this, the killing of this former governor in another southern province along with another guy who was also close to the president, this is cumulatively speaking, it's a big blow for the karzai administration. you know, it'sçç confidant, relatives, high-level aides going back into april some of them are being killed. but more than who is doing it or who it's happening to, i would put it altogether by saying it's a real danger for the stability of the government and it makes it seem as if as the americans and nato begin to pull out, it's really not clear who is in control. it's really not clear where these chips are going to fall.
>> you wrote aboutç that ioç oe of the recent pieces for the post that the tenor of kabul is changing. people seem to be preparing for that day when the last u.s. troops are out of there and trying to figure out where the power is going to be. >> exactly. people are very nervous and scared. the last time a super power was involved in afghanistan and suddenly left, which was of course the soviet union in 1989, it wasn't long after that that civil wary rupted which was incredibly vicious and destructive and destroyed much of the capital. nobody thinks that's going to happen now but they're worriedç that something similar may happen. >> pam con tabl from the "washington post," thanks for being with us. >> you're welcome. >> sreenivasan: a wave of sectarian bloodshed swept through central syria this weekend with up to 30 people killed. the violence in homs was sparked saturday when the dismembered bodies of three government supporters were found. that led to revenge killings. the initial victims belonged to the minority alawite shi-ites as does president bashar al-assad. the majority of syrians are sunnis.
in china, new trouble in xinjiang, in the country's far west with reports of at least four killed.ñi state media said thugs stormed a police station and took hostages, before police opened fire and restored control. but members of the region's uighur minority said police started shooting as protesters rallied against illegal land seizures. japan celebrated today after their women's soccer team defeated the u.s. on sunday to win the world cup. fans watching on t.v. cheered as their team won the title match in germany on penalty kicks. the team had to come from behind twice during regulation play. the japanese team dedicated the victory to victims of the devastating earthquake and tsunami in march. those are some of the day's major stories. now, back to judy. >> woodruff: one of the most prominent and contentious changes in the financial regulation law was the creation of a consumer protection bureau. today, the president picked a leader for that agency. but the debate is hardly over. after months of a fierce behind-
the-scenes battle, president obama tapped a former ohio attorney general to head the new consumer financial protection bureau. >> i am proud to nominateç s post. proud to nominateç we've been recently reminded why this job is going to be so important. there is an army of lobbyists and lawyers right now working to water down the reforms and protections that we passed. they've already spent tens of we're not going to let that happen. >> woodruff: cordray, known in ohio for challenging banks on mortgage foreclosures and questionable lending practices, has already been working as head of enforcement for the agency. but he was not the first choice for consumer advocates and many democrats, who favored elizabetç warren-- a lawyer, bankruptcy expert and tough consumer advocate from harvard, widely credited as the essential arofitt ec the agency.t the consumer bureau was created art of the financial reform law signed a year ago this weeks
the government watchdog agency wil oversee mogareges, cdit cards and other forms of inlends,g. it can write new consumer protection rules, enforce existing federal consumer finance laws, investigate complaints, and review the books and records of banks.çç president obama appointed warren as a special adviser to get the agency up and running in september 2010. but senate republicans immediately made it clear they wouldn't vote to confirm her as the permanent chief. and even though she met with many financial industry executives in recent months, she was still characterized by some as being too anti-business. in a "newshour" interview with jeffrey brown last october, she said she'd work with banks andç on what she considered sketchy practices. >> what i'm really doing is reaching out to the banking industry and saying, some of you
want to find another way to compete for your customers. some of you have tried to put good products out there. but those products get overshadowed by the ones that are full of tricks and traps, the folks who can pretend to offer you 0% financing, when the reality is, they know they're going to make the money through the back door.ç >> wgoeruff: warren also was the center of a very public fight with republicans at a congressional hearing in may. she said she couldn't stay for questioning because she had been misled about how long she was expected to testify. republican congressman patrick mchenry accused her of lying. >> we had an agreement for the time this hearing would occur, you asked it. >> you're making this up, ms. warren. this is simply not the case. this is not the case. >> woodruff: corday's road to confirmation may not be much easier. in may, 44 senate republicans sent president obama a letterçç threatening to withhold support
for any nominee. and the top republican on the banking committee-- alabama's richard shelby-- issued a statement yesterday, saying: "until president obama addresses our concerns by supporting a few reasonable structural changes, we will not confirm anyone to lead it. no accountability, no confirmation." today, the president made light of the difficult confirmation process, citing cordray's statuç as a five-time "jeopardy" champion in the 1980s. >> that's why all of his answers at his confirmation hearings will be in the form of a question. that's a joke. >> woodruff: the agency, which officially begins work thursday, will be independent of other regulators but funded by the federal reserve. for more on about this agency and its new nominee, we're joined by jeff madrick is a senior fellow at the liberal- leaning roosevelt institute.
he's a regular contributor to the "new york review" of books and the author of the recent book, "age of greed." and david hirschmann is the president and c.e.o. of the u.s. chamber of commerce center for capital markets competitiveness. gentlemen, thank you both for being with us. jeff madrick, do you first. we heard a little bit just in that piece about what this new bureau is going to do. what in your mind are the main things it will be doing that haven't been done before? >> well, you know, we haven't had consumer protection in financial area before. financeçç is a very complex subject. it's easy to trick and deceive. even when you're not tricking and deceiving, it's easy... it's hard for consumers to always understand what's going on. what i think your viewers have to get out of this is we're not talking about particularly liberal economics here. we're talking about straightforward laissez-faire conservative economics.
what elizabeth warren wants to do is is allow consumers to understand the cost and nature of the products they'reçç getting. their mortgages, their car loans, their credit cards. the interest on their credit cards. the late charges. >> woodruff: you're saying that's what this new agency will be doing. >> that's what it's going to be dedicated to do. had that existed before it's very important to understand much of the credit crisis we had would have been avoided. >> let me turn to you, david hirschman. when you hear that's the job of this new agency, what is the objection of the chamber of commercial and others who have problems with it? >> well, protecting consumers is a good thing, good both forç into what we hope is a fair marketplace. the real question is how is this agency going to work? it was sold as kind of a one stop shop for consumer protection but in reality it's just one more agency in an overly cumbersome structure that was built 75 years ago.
federal regulators will do consumer protection as well as the 51 state attorneys general who are given powers to enforce the rules written here. what we've asked from the beginning is, okay, we understand we need to protect consumers. that's one of the many things that broke down during the crisis. how is this going to work? doesn't solve the rob problem. >> woodruff: you brought up, jeff madrick, you brought up elizabeth warren but she won't be the one heading up this bureau. it's going to be richard cordray instead. how much difference does that make in what this new bureau does? >> well obviously elizabeth warren had been toxic, had become toxic in congress. i think it was a pretty great disservice to her. i think her views were distorted but mr. cordray has similar views at least in principle. i think once we get beyond what became the toxic nature of thisçç debate he will by ad large live up to those principles but let's keep in mind all this talk about having a structure to support
and protect consumers in complex financial areas simply didn't hold up in the last four or five years. we did not have the structure. in fact, we had by and large ample rules but washington and state and local regulators didn't implement them as didn't oversee a fast-changing industry. >> woodruff: david hirschman, what about that point? and if you would, first, does it make a difference to the chamberç who is heading up this agency, whether it's elizabeth warren or richard cordray? >> certainly our view is that any nomination get a fair and thorough hearing. our issue is not with the personality. it's with the unique concentration of powers put in place at this agency in the name of getting the headline. most independent regulator ever created. congress gave up its usual oversight, its usual checks and balances on this agency so it has its own budget. there's only one senate- confirmed position. the reason this nomination is
so controversial is because it's the one shot in five years that the senate gets to figure out how this is going tm=i-wç after this they can send cards and letters and invite him over to testify, but that's about it. >> woodruff: how about that jeff madrick, this is the one shot the senate gets to shape this, this year? >> this agency is housed in the federal reserve. and i don't doubt that business is upset but it has its own budget. the congress has been cutting back or holding down budgets at the securities and exchange commission and the commodity futures trading commission, indeed cutting staff at a time when they need more staff. in order to keepç thoseç regulations from being fully implemented. and new regulations being developed. so i get a little energized, let's say, when i hear isn't it dangerous that they have their own budget? indeed that's one of the things we can count on. they will not be cut down by congress. >> david hirschman, what about
the other point that the add voks for this bureau have raised that the consumer needs to be protected against this complicated language in credit card arrangements, what happened with mores leading up to the financialç collapse,ç that these are all functions among others that this new agency will perform? >> two things. first, we asked the people setting up the bureau, how are you going to prevent the 51 state attorneys general from having different interpretations on how to protect consumer s so that you have a product that might be legal in north carolina but not in ohio. we think consumers benefit from having choice. by creating legal jeopardy, you reduce the choice that consumers have. what the.... >> woodruff: you're saying there may be contradiction between what washington is is saying.... >> exactly. this is not one set of rules. cofstmers will be confused by that. they'll have a hard time understanding why different products are not available on a national basis. for us the simple question.... >> woodruff: let me raise that with jeff madrick. what about that point of
criticism? >> i just found these points almost beside the point. look at what we had lived through already. consumers had lots of choices. mortgage first-time homeowners refinancing homes. they were deceived constantly by complex products. having a central place in washington to deliver and developçç rules that make sene as opposed to doing it at state and local levels is probably exactly what we need. we don't need more consumer choice. we need standardized products that can be understood. this is basic economics. i want to stress.... >> woodruff: you're saying.... >> this is not wide-eyed liberal stuff. >> woodruff: you don't see the contradiction that mr. hirschman sees? >> no, i see clarity and standardization. that's what we badly need in this market. >> i think you've hit on the fundamental difference here. there's a view that says informed consumers. give them the information in plain english and let them make decisions. t's particularly important to small businesses that initially at least rely on
consumer products to start the business. then there's the view that says protect consumers by limiting the choices they have. let's create one mortgage. one approved credit card. one of each, right? kind of a plain vanilla approach to financial products. we don't think consumers benefit from fewer choices. we think they do benefit from well informed disclosure. >> woodruff: you're saying that... go ahead. >> that's an extreme exaggeration of what's going on. the idea that there's going to be one kind of mortgage and one kind of credit card. it's simply not what's gigg on herpw this agency is being developed, this bureau, to make it clear to consumers what they are buying. when they have choice, they'll understand the choices. we have lived through a horrible time that's subjected these people to all kinds of shenanigans. let's face the fact and let's correct that. this is a major step in that direction. i would think frankly business would applaud it. it would allow them to sell on a level playing field. >> woodruff: how about that?ç
we're not trying to relitigate the legislation. >> woodruff: but there is an attempt to restructure it. >> how do you make sure that this works well with the rest of the regulators? how do you make sure that this isn't an island out there doing its own thing but that really that you have all this alphabet soup of regulators talking to each other? what business doesn't like is when one regulator says go left and the says go right. it would be like you're driving down the street tomorrow and one cop saying the speed limit is 5 and the next one saying it's 50. it would make it hard to drive. >> woodruff: i hear...çç the different directions. i'm sorry. we're going to have to leave it there. i know we'll be coming back to this one. >> that requires a response. thank you, judy. >> woodruff: thank you very much jeff madrick and david hirschman. >> ifill: now, indonesia, an emerging economic powerhouse that is still coping with basic problems from corruption to
health care to feeding its people. tonight, in the first of four stories from the rapidly modernizing nation of 240 million people, ray suarez examines how indonesia grapples with mental illness.çç a warning: this first report contains some disturbing images. >> reporter: yayasan galuh may be one of the saddest places on earth. located in bekasi, on the outskirts of jakarta, it's a facility for the mentally ill, where some 260 patients, mostly men, spend their days on a hard tile surface rimmed by open sewers. dozens are locked in a large cage, others are chained toçç poles. many are naked. the air is thick with their weeping and screaming, and with the stench of human excrement in the intense heat.
the conditions may seem cruel, but employees at the foundation see themselves as healers, who give these much-neglected patients ancient and what they say are effective therapies. many of the patients have been left here by family members at wit's end, not sure where to turn for help, when the choices are so few. in a country of almost 240 million people, there are only 500 psychiatrists.çç so into that enormous vacuum, left by the near total absence of clinics, occupational therapy or modern drugs, moves traditional medicine: a combination of massage, prayer and herbal therapy. during our visit a traditional healer prayed over chain used to restrain a patient, herbs were made into eye drops, and a drink made from coconuts. jajat sudrajat-- one of leaders at the foundation-- says these traditional healing medicines
treateople who suffer from dark spirits. >> ( translated ): it's because of a problem in their house or a problem in their family. >> reporter: so these people have a spiritual sickness, not a physical sickness? >> ( translated ): they have a spiritual problem. because physically, they are in good shape. but it's in their heart. it's in their spirit that they are sick. >> reporter: it's a common sentiment-- not only in indonesia but in much of the developing world generally-- that mental illness isn't a neurological disorder, but instead is the result of evil spirits.çç it's a misconception that the country's mental health director, dr. irmansyah, is trying desperately to change. what's the biggest problem in treating mental health in indonesia? >> ignorance by the people. because some members of our population still believe about superstitions and other things and they don't have any idea
that this behavior is caused by brain malfunction.mç >> reporter: harvard trained, dr. irmansyah has begun a crusade, of sorts, to educate people about mental illness. we followed him as he went about his work in a village outside cianjur. we met a 29-year-old man who has been locked up by his family for more than ten years. according to irmansyah, some 30,000 mentally ill people are restrained in cages, stocks or chains. this man's brother and sister say it's to prevent him fromçç wandering off, frightening neighbors, and getting into trouble. irmansyah has convinced them their brother needs to be on medicine for schizophrenia instead. and he has brought along a living example: someone with a powerful story to tell.
two and a half years ago, nurhamid karnatmaja went to his local health clinic in cianjur to seek treatment because he knew something was wrong.çç >> ( translated ): i have bipolar, which means i suffer from two extremes of emotions. i would cry when i was laughing and laugh when i was crying. but that was a long time ago. now i am healed. >> reporter: once you got the treatment, were you better quickly? >> ( translated ): yes. i feel so much better now. my emotions are stable. i feel better than even before i was ill. >> reporter: nurhamid now volunteers for the clinic as an outreach worker, visiting homes where mentally ill people are being restrained by their families and telling them there's a better way. a year ago he discovered kikin sodikin, who was locked up by his family when he began showing signs of schizophrenia. >> ( translated ): my family was very afraid, very worried. they had to restrain me in a cage for three months.
>> reporter: nurhamid introduced kikin to dr. syafari soma, who developed the mental health community outreach program anúç who provides psychological services at the cianjur clinic two days a week. dr. syafari is a psychiatrist and he knows there aren't enough doctors like him. in fact, the world health organization estimates that indonesia needs ten times the psychiatrists it currently has. to make up some of that deficit, dr. syafari is training others to help out. >> ( translated ): that is why we are working with other professionals like nurses. also we are training the families of the patients and we're training former patients.& it's the key to the wellness of the patients. and it's proven that it's working here in cianjur. >> reporter: while dr. syafari is pleased with the results he has been getting with his community medicine project, he is frustrated the government doesn't provide more resources. >> ( translated ): a very small amount of money is allocated
because they don't think mental illness is the same as physical illness. we want the government to know that it is. patients need to be treated the same. and mental health doctors need the budgets to treat people with medicines.ç >> reporter: dr. engang rahayu sedyaningish is indonesia's health minister. she agrees that mental health is a major problem, but says that she is faced with a wide variety of health issues that need funding. >> it is not easy. here we have limited money. the health budget is only 2.3% of the total national budget. so very small and everything is important. so we are trying our best, trying to balance our budget with the problems.zç >> reporter: in fact, only 1% of that limited health budget is spent on mental health. dr. engang says the u.n.'s millennium development goals don't stress mental health, so there's little incentive to spend more among nations straining to meet the targets.
>> we are not valued or judged at the end of the 2015 by mental health. so you must understand if7ç ministers of health in these countries do not spend their money there because the indicators are not there. >> reporter: it's a problem that harvard medical anthropologist byron good sees the world over: issues like h.i.v. and infant mortality get most of the attention and most of the money. >> one of the reasons that mental illnesses tend not to show up on public health statistics is because many people have a chronic illness that doesn't kill them.çç so if you're using mortality statistics, you find infant and maternal mortality to be much more of a problem. as we've begun to move toward non-communicable diseases, then people begin to measure years of life with a disability and to everyone's surprise, when they
measure years of life with a disability, mental illnesses came right up to the very top. ree or four of the top ten most disabling illnesses. >> reporter: good, who has four years ago, good studied mental health needs in aceh, the war-torn region in the northern part of the country hit by a devastating tsunami in 2004. many survivors suffered severe mental and emotional side effects. >> we asked over 1,000 people, before you got ill, how many hours a week on average did you work?çç young people to old people, the average was 28 hours a week, i worked in the fields. when you got sick with mental illness, how many hours did you work?
it dropped down to 10 hours. that says to me, there's an enormous economic cost to mental illness. >> reporter: in a country that is urgently seeking to grow its economy, health minister engang says industry should invest inç health services, if it wants a productive work force. >> the health development cannot be done only by the government. and cannot be done only by the minister of health. so we include all stakeholders. we ask participation from industries, from civil society as well as from the communities themselves. >> reporter: in the meantime, drs. irmansyah and syafari will continue their work of educating people about the benefits of modern medicine. it is their hope that by 2014,ç indonesia will be rid of places like yayasan galuh and all cages and stocks that restrain the
mentally ill. >> ifill: ray's next report looks at indonesia's surging economy and its mounting corruption problems.le >> woodruff: next, president obama declared today thatçç progress is being made on the debt and deficit negotiations with congressional leaders, but there was scant evidence to back up his claim. "newshour" congressional correspondent kwame holman reports. >> reporter: the president made drew a line in the sand as house republicans prepared to vote tuesday on their own debt reduction plan. tea party supporters in the house pushed the "cut, cap, and balance" program. it would cut $35 billion dollars for food stamps, medicaid and other mandatory spending programs; cap next year'sçç operating budgets for federal agencies and seek a balanced budget amendment to the u.s.
constitution. at the white house, presidential spokesman jay carney said called the house bill nothing but classic washington posturing. >> this is designed to duck, dodge, and dismantle. duck responsibility, dodge obligations, and dismantle eventually if enshrined into law, which it will not be, but it would essentially require the dismantlement of our social safety net, social security, medicare, and medicaid. the president's made clear he would veto this measure. but work continues on the actual measures that have a chance for getting through both houses ofç congress and have a chance for becoming law. >> reporter: indeed, the house plan was given no chance in the democratic-controlled senate. but minority leader mitch mcconnell and his fellow republicans demanded a vote just the same. >> i heard one of my democratic colleagues say yesterday that the votes simply don't exist to pass any bill in the senate that balances the budget. my question is, why in the world not? if you can't vote for a bill
that says you'll live within your means, then you've given up and you agree that the unsustainable path is the only one we have. and that's really completely unacceptable. >> reporter: an aide to houseçç speaker john boehner said the "cut, cap and balance" plan still is the best path forward, despite the promised presidential veto. boehner and house majority leader eric cantor met sunday with the president at the white house. mr. obama responded briefly to a shouted question about those talks today. >> we're making progress. >> reporter: by some accounts, the best hope for progress could be the bipartisan senate effort crafted by minority leader mcconnell and majority leader harry reid. it would give the president sweeping authority to raise the federal debt ceiling on his own, but include votes on spending cuts. it was unclear how such a planç ultimately would fare in the house, but giving tea party lawmakers even a symbolic say this week could help clear the way. in any event, democratic leader
reid announced the senate will work continuously to get a deal. >> we're going to stay in session every day including saturdays and sundays until congress passes legislation that prevents the united states from defaulting on our obligations. i spoke to the republican leader. he understands the necessity of our being in. >> reporter: the president still was pushing to raise the debt several trillion dollars before the august second federal default deadline. in the meantime, senate republican tom coburn of oklahoma called for slashing much more-- $9 trillion over the next decade through spending cuts and new taxes. >> this plan offers the american people $9 trillion reasons to stop making excuses and start solving the problems in washington. it's time to show the american people not only what is possible but also what is necessary. what is not possible, however iç not having a plan and delaying reform until some perfect political moment that will never
arrive. >> reporter: whatever the merits of coburn's plan, a cbs news poll showed the much of the public shares his frustration. 48% disapproved of president obama's efforts in the debt ceiling talks. 58% disapproved of the democrats' work in congress and republicans fared worst with a 71% disapproval rating. major bond rating agencies already have warned they may downgrade the u.s. credit rating, if there's no agreement soon. and today, moody's suggested the government should eliminate the threat by simply removing any legal limit on its debt.ç >> ifill: finally tonight, jeffrey brown talks to piano virtuoso leon fleisher about his many lives in music spanning nearly eight decades. ♪
>> reporter: it was one of the great mysteries of modern music: leon fleisher, an internationally-renowned concerç pianist, suddenly lost his ability to play. the loss stretched into years, more than 30 years, in fact. ♪ but it also opened up another world, as tragedy turned into a kind of triumph and an even richer life in music, onstage and off. the story is told in the book "my nine lives"-- a memoir fleisher wrote with music critic anne midgette. you wrote in the book "when the gods want to get to you, they know right where to strike, the place that will hurt the most."ç did you feel that? >> oh, most profoundly. most profoundly, of course. yeah, my little tragedy was positively greek in scope.
>> reporter: fleisher was the stuff of myth from the start: a child prodigy raised in san francisco, who gave his first recital at age seven. and at ten began studies with artur schnabel, one of the 20th century's greatest pianists. when we talked recently at hisç baltimore home, fleisher spoke of schnabel's most important lesson. >> music has a structure even though you can't taste it, you can't touch it, you can't smell it. it's there. and a great piece of music, greatly played, is as palpable, as three dimensional as anything else in life. >> reporter: so you think of the composer as constructing the work and then your job as theçç player is to re-construct it?
>> yes, in a sense to discover what his structure is. also, the role of the performer is in a sense a very dicey one. because in today's culture and today's society everybody wants to have a star. but in music, for example, the performer is indispensable but he or she is not the star. the music is the star. >> from carnegie hall, leon >> reporter: still, the music business needs its stars and fleisher became one. he made his carnegie hall debut at age 16.çç and in 1952, he was the first american to win belgium's prestigious queen elizabeth competition. later that decade and into the early '60s, fleisher made acclaimed recordings of beethoven and brahms concertos with george szell and the cleveland orchestra. but in 1965, over a period of many months, fleisher began to
notice a problem: the 4th and 5th fingers of his right hand were cramping and curling up and no one could tell him what was wrong or how to fix it.ç so, literally, they just froze up and you couldn't uncurl them? >> only with enormous effort. they have to be ready to work. >> reporter: so you're sitting at the piano and you feel them go like that? >> yeah. it doesn't work. >> reporter: i'll bet it doesn't. >> i don't know any music for eight fingers. >> reporter: fleisher is laughing today, but back then, he writes in his book. his career was in jeopardy. his personal life-- including a second marriage-- was in tatters and he even considered suicide.ç >> i was in a state of deep funk, deep depression. yeah, i had all kinds of untoward thoughts. but then i woke up one morning with the help of friends,
students, and i suddenly became aware that my connection, my relationship was with music more than with the instrument.çç >> reporter: what does that >> if there was a way that i could remain active in music without playing with two hands, well, i had to find it. ♪ and that's what he did, beginning with the surprisingly rich repertoire of music written for just the left hand. including pieces composed by maurice ravel and others for their friend paul wittgenstein-- a pianist who lost his right arm while serving in world war one. fleisher also devoted himself more to teaching, mostly at the peabody institute in baltimore.ç not having the use of one hand,
he says, actually made him a better teacher. >> it stopped me from a certain kind of teaching, which was the lazy kind of teaching, where you push them off the chair and you say, "this is how i think it should go." i had to put all this stuff into words. >> reporter: and in the 1970s fleisher took on a whole new role in his musical é11ñ becoming a conductor. he worked with the baltimore symphony and with orchestras around the world. all the while, he sought treatments and help for his ailment-- everything from aroma therapy to zen buddhism. >> leon fleisher is back for the first time since 1965, he has completed a great performance with both hands. >> reporter: in 1982, feeling stronger, fleisher made a first attempt at a two-handed comeback with a performance.
he made it through the concert, but realized it was what he called "an evening of pretense.ç he wasn't really healed. it wasn't until the mid-'90s that his problem was given a name: focal dystonia-- a neurological disorder that can be triggered by repetitive movement and stress and attacks a particular set of muscles. ♪ and while there's still no cure, a treatment involving shots of botox and a massage technique known as "rolfing," allowed fleisher to uncurl his fingers and play. and, this time, at the start of a new century to realize a true comeback. now in his 8x;, he plays worldwide performing pieces for two-hands and one-hand, sometimes with katherine, his wife of 28 years. >> when it works, when it's going right, it's a state of ecstasy.
all the dendrites are firing. we're dealing with some of the greatest creation, creations in human history, this music. >> reporter: in 2007, fleisher was one of the top american artists celebrated at the kennedy center honors. how important was it to you finally to make what you could call a successful comeback?çç would you have felt yourself a failure if... >> oh, no, no, no, no. i mean, if i can, i will. if i can't, i won't. you know, there is an enormous amount of repertoire that i have not done that i have yet to look forward to. it will keep me off the streets. >> reporter: indeed, leon fleisher will be off the streets and in concerts halls this summer. çñr
>> woodruff: again, the major developments of the day: the phone hacking scandal deepened in britain with a second high-level resignation at scotland yard and the death of a whistleblower. president obama threatened to veto a house republican plan to cut spending and push a balanced budget amendment to the constitution. and four nato troops were killed in afghanistan, as the commanding general david petraeus formally wrapped up his tenure. he's moving to the job of c.i.a. director. and to hari sreenivasan for what's on the "newshour" online. hari? >> sreenivasan: ray tiled a we have more on mental health in indonesia including a dispatch about the mental health needs in aceh following a sometimes- violent battle for autonomy then a major tsunami in 2004. you asked if we were too easy on the cleveland company with a no- layoff policy. paul solman responds on his "making sense" page. and gwen, judy and david chalian discuss the politics of deficit reduction plan in this week's political checklist. all that and more is on our web site, newshour.pbs.org.
>> ifill: and that's thgç "newshour" for tonight. on tuesday, we'll talk to the head of the nuclear regulatory commission about re-evaluating risks for u.s. plants in the aftermath of the japanese tsunami. i'm gwen ifill. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. we'll see you online and again here tomorrow evening. thank you and good night. major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century.çç
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